Category Archives: instructional design

Field Recording, the Soundscape and Acoustic Ecology: Design Report

 Part 1. General Course Information

 1.1 Course Title:

This instructional design course document is for the upcoming course “Field Recording, the Soundscape and Acoustic Ecology,” to be delivered by training services through Born Audio.

 1.2 Purpose of the Course:

“Field Recording, the Soundscape and Acoustic Ecology,” is based on creating instruction for field recording with the intention of learning about sonic preservation and acoustic ecology; described as: “the relationship, mediated through sound, between living beings and their environment.”* Soundscape and acoustic ecology is the work pioneered by R.Murray Schafer and the World Soundscape Project (WSP), to the modern day World Forum for Acoustic Ecology (WFAE.) The course is intended primarily as introductory levels of instruction to (1) introduce learners to field recording, (2) the soundscape work of R. Murray Schafer, Bernie Krause, and (3) acoustic ecology studies.

 1.3 Target Audience Description:

This 5-week summer intensive course will cater to learners in areas of Arts and Social Sciences and more specifically under interdisciplinary studies, like Multimedia Studies under Arts, and the academic disciplines that makeup the Social Sciences. Learners involved in the program should have a strong desire to learn about the application of sound in Arts and Social Sciences and the technical application of sound recording devices and software.

 1.4 Instructional Goal:

The primary goal of the course is to introduce students to field recording, soundscape and acoustic ecology. Three goals of the course are to (1) introduce learners to field recording, (2) the soundscape work of R. Murray Schafer, Bernie Krause and (3) acoustic ecology studies.

1.5 Course Prerequisites:

The following prerequisites are recommended for students enrolling in the course:

  • Third or fourth year academic experience in the Arts, and an intermediate, to advanced familiarity with the Social Sciences.
  • Experience with qualitative and quantitative research and reporting.
  • Experience and aptitude with audio recording equipment is an asset.
  • Ability to operate a computer and have a beginner to intermediate level experience with operating multimedia software.

1.6 Evaluation Approach:

There are several methods used in the Evaluation strategy:

  • Direct Testing – on Gear Setup and Recording – Short answer and Essay Questions will be used.
  • Direct testing on identification of the variables that make up a soundscape. Multiple choice, Short answer and Essay Questions will be used. (See Appendix for a sample quiz.)
  • Final Portfolio of field recording and reports – based on a Rubric (See Appendix for a sample Rubric.)

Part 2. Course Design Details

2.1 Learning Objectives:

After completing this course, the learner will be able to:

  • Given the sound equipment of a recorder and microphone, the learner will be able to setup the equipment for field recording correctly; (Blooms – Apply)
  • Enable audio recorder preferences to capture the highest quality field recordings possible. (Blooms – Apply)
  • Be introduced to the work of R. Murray Schaffer, Bernie Krause, Soundscape and Acoustic Ecology; (Blooms – Synthesize)
  • Learn to identify Keynote sounds, Sound signals, Soundmarks and their relationship to each other in creating the Soundscape. (Blooms – Evaluate, Synthesize)
  • Use Audacity sound editing software to master and provide meta-data for cataloguing. (Blooms – Apply)
  • Use the SoundCloud website to upload, share and comment on field recording.

2.2 Instructional Strategies:

The course will be a Blended Learning course that includes face-to-face instruction and online resources and activities through the Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System (LMS.)

Direct Instruction –  on setup of sound equipment for field recording;

Indirect Instruction – as students use their developing skills to record and analyze data to construct meaning.

Experiential Learning – students will focus on the process and application of skills to conduct field recording and analyze soundscapes in groups and in individual projects.

Interactive Instruction – will play a huge part as students will discuss their work online in an LMS and by sharing their work online through the SoundCloud application.

The Instructor will lead face-to-face instruction through lecture and demonstration and be a facilitator online in the D2L discussions area answering questions and giving feedback. Finally the instructor will guide students through an assessment phase of the course, providing feedback and grades on course assignments.

2.3 Media:

  • Instructor
  • Recording Equipment (for each student):
    • Field recorder and protective case
    • Extra batteries
    • Headphones
    • XLR cables
    • Stereo microphone
    • Zeppelins and wind-shields
    • Microphone stands
    • Still cameras for visual document
    • Journals
  • Computer Hardware and Software (for each student):
    • Desktop computers
    • Audacity software
  • Internet Applications:
    • D2L – Learning Management System
    • SoundCloud

The course will provide users with portable recording equipment for personal use during the duration of the course. Students will have lectures in face-to-face classes in a computer lab and an opportunity to work on desktop computers for completing class based exercises. Students can use the Internet and their own computer to access PDF versions of the instructor’s lectures on D2L. Students can post in D2L discussion forums and access relevant YouTube, SoundCloud and other web links from the Links section of D2L posted by the instructor.

2.4 Length of Instruction:

This course is designed as one class per week, 5-week summer intensive course. The course is structured as 5, 3-hour weekday classes and one weekend field recording trip, for a total of 15-hours of instruction and one 6-hour field trip.

2.5 Course Structure:

The course is divided into 5, 3 hour classes taking place once a week. Each class will have approximately 1.5 hours of lecture and 1.5 hours of classroom exercises and assisted work with the Instructor on recording equipment and audio software. Students will need to continue working on course materials and online short quizzes in D2L in order to optimize performance in class.

2.6 Development Tools:

Course lectures given in class will be created in Microsoft PowerPoint and converted to Adobe PDFs for upload to D2L.  Sound samples that students will be using to edit in class will be created by the instructor using recording equipment and uploaded to servers for use with Audacity editing software. All recordings used in Audacity by students will be created by the instructor with the same recording equipment being used by students, to accurately represent a range of recording possibilities.

2.7 Deliverables:

  • Pre, During and Post Questionnaires for students
  • Course Syllabus for students
  • Instructor Lesson plans (Available under 3.1 Lesson Plan Structure)
  • Field Recording Practical Exam (Sample under Appendix)
  • Mid-course online Quiz developed
  • Final Portfolio Instructions
  • Final Portfolio Rubric (Sample under Appendix)

Part 3. Lesson Plans

3.1 Lesson Plan Structure:

Lessons for each individual class will be broken up into two different sections. One section will be the lecture and class discussion and the second section will be made up of workshop and practical application exercises with audio hardware and software.

Detailed Outline:

Lesson 1

Lesson 1: Acoustic Ecology and the Soundscape

1. Introduction

2. Lesson objectives:

a. Identify Acoustic Ecology

b. Identify the Soundscape

c. Identify pioneers in the Soundscape field

d. Listening to Soundscapes

3. Method: lecture/discussion/Q&A/Exercises

4. Approximate time: 3-hours

5. Topic list:

a. What is Acoustic Ecology?

b. What makes up the Soundscape?

c. Learning about R. Murray Schafer & Bernie Krause

d. Listening to Soundscape examples (Guided by instructor)

6. Hands-on-exercises:

a. Students will listen to Soundscapes and practice identifying key parts with instructor.

7. Discussion

8. Debrief and Conclusion

9. Online Continuation:

a. Online Readings and class discussions on D2L.

b. Shot online quiz on Acoustic Ecology and the Soundscape. (Sample under Appendix)

Detailed Outline:

Lesson 2

Lesson 2: Field Recording Equipment

1. Introduction

2. Lesson objectives:

a. Identify what field recording is and what the process is

b. Identify the Why, of field recording

c. Practical exercises with recording hardware

3. Method: lecture/discussion/Q&A/Exercises

4. Approximate time: 3-hours

5. Topic list:

a. Field Recording

b. Field Recording Equipment

c. The Field Recording setup and Workflow

6. Hands-on-exercises:

a. Setting up the field recording equipment

b. A test recording

c. Proper saving and storage protocol

7. Debrief and Conclusion

8. Online Continuation:

a. Online Readings and class discussions on D2L.

Detailed Outline:

Lesson 3

Lesson 3: Field Trip Lesson

1. Introduction

2. Objective:

a. Learners will test their recording skills, by recording soundscapes in the field.

b. Learners will demonstrate they are able to setup all recording equipment to the instructor for former evaluation. (Sample under Appendix)

3. Approximate time: 6-hour field trip to isolated recording locations.

4. Debrief and Conclusion

5. Online Continuation:

a. Online Readings and class discussions on D2L.

Detailed Outline:

Lesson 4:

Lesson 4: Audacity Software Training

1. Introduction

2. Lesson objectives:

a. Importing recordings into the computer and the Audacity software program.

b. Learning to navigate the Audacity Interface

c. Learn about editing techniques in Audacity

3. Method: lecture/discussion/Q&A/Exercises

4. Approximate time: 3-hours

5. Topic list:

a. What is audacity?

b. Importing from recorders into Audacity

c. Setting up an Audacity Project

d. Audacity Interface Overview

e. Editing Audio – Using the Tools

f. Proper saving and storage protocol

6. Hands-on-exercises:

a. Students will import their own field recording into Audacity

b. Students will practice basic editing with their field recordings

c. Transferring audio into the computer

7. Debrief and Conclusion

8. Online Continuation:

a. Online Readings and class discussions on D2L.

Detailed Outline:

Lesson 5:

Lesson 5: Mastering Audio and Sound Cloud

1. Introduction

2. Lesson objectives:

a. Learning about Mastering Audio Techniques: optimizing sound files for audience playback.

b. Learning to create and use a SoundCloud web account.

3. Method: lecture/discussion/Q&A/Exercises

4. Approximate time: 3-hours

5. Topic list:

a. Learning About Normalization

b. Amplitude Reduction

c. Equalization

d. Learning about Compression

e. Reducing Sound Peaks and Spikes

f. Using Low-pass and High-pass Filters

g. Exporting options from Audacity

h. Creating a SoundCloud Account.

i. Uploading recording to Sound Cloud

6. Hands-on-exercises:

a. Students will take their field recordings through an audio mastering phase.

b. Students will create a SoundCloud account and start sharing and commenting on other student projects.

7. Debrief and Conclusion

Appendix

Rubric for Assessment of the Field Recording Final Portfolio Project:

Rubric Criteria:

Poor

Below Average

Average

Above Average

Excellent

Learners have recorded a high quality field recording.

Each recording has been properly edited using Audacity software

Your Audacity session shows that proper Mastering techniques were used to optimize the file.

Original Audacity sessions for each mastered recording are included.

Audio files are saved as an uncompressed aiff, or .wav and also as a .mp3 file.

Portfolio includes a detailed report identifying the Soundscape, including all Keynote, Sound Signals, and Sound mark sounds.

Portfolio includes a link to your personal SoundCloud account.

Pre, During and Post Questionnaires for students

Field Recording Practical Exam:

Learner will be checked off by the Instructor as having successfully accomplished the following requirements:

Properly assemble:

Microphone stand,

The zeppelin, windshield, microphone and xlr together

Connect the recorder to microphone and stand

Set proper recording levels and monitor a recording

Record

Online Quiz Samples:

Short Answer:

1. Define Acoustic Ecology

2. Define soundscape and the three main elements that create it.

3. Listen to the following embedded audio file and describe all three elements of the soundscape:

(2-minute embedded .mp3 file)

References:

1. Brown, A., & Green, T.D. (2011). “The Essentials of Instructional Design: Connecting Fundamental Principles with Process and Practice.” (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

2. *Wikipedia: Acoustic Ecology is the relationship, mediated through sound, between living beings and their environment.”

3. Beggs & Thede. (2001). “Designing Web Audio.”O’Reilly & Associates

– John Born

Sound In Education

etug
Getting ready to present my new “Sound In Education” online event at eTUG in January. The presentation focuses on Sound Cloud as a content creation tool for online courses through LMS and mobile application:

Sound In Education

The tools for sharing audio online in an educational context are quickly changing for students and Instructors. The ability to use audio clips as a way to enhance lesson plans, quizzing, Instructor feedback, and student self-assessment have greatly been enhanced with accessible audio web tools. One example of a recording, file sharing, and community building site is Sound Cloud. Sound Cloud allows you to start your own audio podcasting channel and share embedded audio files as online course content and discussion posts. Recording directly to Sound Cloud is not the only option, as free software like Audacity allow users access to editing features, special effects and multi-tracking for more sophisticated audio content before uploading content to the Web.

This presentation presents a step by step process for pre-production, production, and delivery of audio content in a learning context.

Contact me if you have any questions, or are interested in hearing more about the presentation at john@bornaudio.com

– John

UPEI HITS

I’m very excited to be presenting my research on The Application of Film Mixing to Interactive Media Design this morning at UPEI HITS:
http://ic.upei.ca/events/conference/hits-education

The Application of Film Mixing to Interactive Media Design:

My earliest research is based on taking the auditory hierarchy used in film and animation and applying it to instructional message design to strengthen narrative comprehension for the learner. I based my research on instructional message design theory, the auditory hierarchy, and on various aesthetic and technical principles of sound design derived from my film and animation studies.

My work began with the study of sound design to enhance the use of still imagery and text through presentations developed in Microsoft PowerPoint. My ongoing research on the topic has forced me to ask new questions concerning the application of film mixing to interactive media design, specifically in the context of 3D simulations and non-linear media. The interactive media design component addresses the progression from a static, ‘linear model’ of presentation to an interactive, learner-centered narrative enhancement, informed by learner input. A key question that comes from this style of interactivity is: “Will the learner acquire the required narrative content if they select an interactive path different from the original intention of the instructor (content creator)?” And “How can sound design seamlessly support narrative in a non-linear, ‘ever changing’ Constructivist environment?”

This is where the principles of film sound design can assist the structuring of audio and visual information in an instructional interactive environment. Expertise in film mixing theory and practice can inform the creation of more ‘immersive’ narratives. Additionally, a technical understanding of interactive audio ‘gaming’ tools, such as Wwise, can also be instrumental in the creation of dynamically adaptive ‘sound design spaces’ that change in real-time, maintaining user engagement.

I’m a huge fan of the director of the program, Dr. Annabel J. Cohen. Here is a link for her work at the Auditory Perception & Music Cognition Research & Training Laboratory: http://www.upei.ca/~musicog/index.html

Her research can be found here:
http://www.upei.ca/~musicog/research/research.html

– John

The Application of Film Mixing to Interactive Media Design

I’ve been spending more time with the idea of the Audio Hierarchy impacting 3D and Interactive Media Design. I’ve made a submission to speak again at the UPEI HITS conference where I spoke in 2009:

The Application of Film Mixing to Interactive Media Design:

My earliest research is based on taking the auditory hierarchy used in film and animation and applying it to instructional message design to strengthen narrative comprehension for the learner. I based my research on instructional message design theory, the auditory hierarchy, and on various aesthetic and technical principles of sound design derived from my film and animation studies.

My work began with the study of sound design to enhance the use of still imagery and text through presentations developed in Microsoft PowerPoint. My ongoing research on the topic has forced me to ask new questions concerning the application of film mixing to interactive media design, specifically in the context of 3D simulations and non-linear media. The interactive media design component addresses the progression from a static, ‘linear model’ of presentation to an interactive, learner-centered narrative enhancement, informed by learner input. A key question that comes from this style of interactivity is: “Will the learner acquire the required narrative content if they select an interactive path different from the original intention of the instructor (content creator)?” And “How can sound design seamlessly support narrative in a non-linear, ‘ever changing’ Constructivist environment?”

This is where the principles of film sound design can assist the structuring of audio and visual information in an instructional interactive environment. Expertise in film mixing theory and practice can inform the creation of more ‘immersive’ narratives. Additionally, a technical understanding of interactive audio ‘gaming’ tools, such as Wwise, can also be instrumental in the creation of dynamically adaptive ‘sound design spaces’ that change in real-time, maintaining user engagement.

– John

Sound Design Curriculum Assessment

Sound Design Curriculum Assessment:

Much like Kieran Egan’s book Getting it Wrong from the Beginning; I have enjoyed the challenge and rewards of stepping away from scripting technical instructional message projects of instructional design, and writing on the historical and modern context of curriculum development. Studying Ornstein and Hunkins’ text Curriculum has been a great introduction to the philosophical aspects of curriculum design, and how the roots of the major philosophies, like Idealism and Realism have laid the foundation for advancing educational theory. Having a chance to study the philosophical structures of curriculum development has allowed me to strengthen the foundation of my own teaching methods in the classroom and online.

The educational philosophy I have chosen to build my assignment on is “Realism.” I’ve chosen this philosophy because of the stress on logical and abstract concepts in mix. I like the fact that Realism “values the sciences as much as the arts.” (Pg.35) My own experience through the education system is based on this structure and my studies of becoming a sound designer have been very rewarding by studying the historical aspects of the sound design discipline.

The basis of my lesson plans is to educate students on the foundational principles of sound design and the designers that have shaped modern day sound design in film. I like the quote suggested under the philosophical studies of Aristotle that: “Aristotle believed that everything had a purpose and that human’s purpose is to think.” (Pg.35) Followed by: “For Aristotle and later Aquinas, the universe is ordered; things happen for a purpose and education should illuminate purpose.” (Pg.35)

Combining this with a strong value on arts and science, I agree that in order to reach your potential around “thinking”, and then one day be constructing advanced and original abstract ideas in your discipline, you must start by learning the fundamental steps. In order to one day be a great composer of orchestral music, you must start with the educational order of reading and learning notation and the staff. I believe that once you move through this curriculum process you will have a stronger opportunity to lead in your discipline, and even teach others in this trade, thus advancing the future orchestration of your discipline.

My lessons are constructed to introduce sound design theory through the context of film studies. It will introduce some of the most popular theorists and technicians in the development of sound design in film. The final aim is to introduce the concept of the Audio Hierarchy (Dialogue, Sound Effects, Ambience, or Music) as the primary narrative design tool for either learning about, or creating film in a post-production context. In doing so, I’m trying to introduce the powerful expressive voice of sound, which is one of the key components in helping film reach its full creative potential.

My work is based on an “Intellectual Aim: focusing on the acquisition and comprehension of knowledge, problem-solving skills, and methods of thinking.” (Pg.224) I think this particular curriculum aim for students is a perfect match for the “thinking” and “purpose” driven philosophical base of Realism. Perhaps it’s best to place the “problem-solving skills” in the context of intellectual scripting and not necessarily direct technical application. Through this method my main goal is to help my students learn about, and try to understand the value and importance of using sound effectively in film to help convey narrative and meaning.

I found an interesting challenge in the way I want to place my objective types under “Nonbehavioral General Objectives” rather then “Behavioral.” Advocates of nonbehavioral objectives use words such as appreciate, know, and understand. They believe stating objectives too specifically restricts learning to measurable achievements.” (Pg.229) I firmly believe that Realism is trying to get to the core Cognitive objectives and to primarily be the first rung on the ladder of “knowledge.” But, I believe that the evaluation system under the “Behavioral Objectives” …they consider it essential that behavior objectives state what the student will do (e.g., write a paragraph or compare data) in terms of subject content (Pg.228) is the real way to evaluate my Realism philosophy driven units. In The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Cognitive Domain, Benjamin Bloom divided cognitive learning into “(1) knowledge, (2) comprehension, (3) application, (4) analysis, (5) synthesis, and evaluation.” (Pg229) There is a division after “ (1) knowledge” and that the rest will fall in to the development of specific skills and abilities, which will not be the path of evaluation for my Realist unit work.

Lesson Plan 1:

Starting with a focus on the “cognitive domain” learning objectives of “knowledge”: “Knowledge objectives are related to knowledge of (1) specifics, such as facts and terminology; (2) ways to deal with specifics, such as classifications, criteria, and methodology; and (3) universals and abstractions, such as principles, generalizations, theories, and structures. Example: The student will name the highest mountain in range in Asia.” (Pg. 229)

As stated in Program Planning for Adult Learners by Rosemary S. Caffarella: “There are five major categories of learning outcomes: acquiring new knowledge; enhancing cognitive skills;
developing psychomotor skills; strengthening problem-solving and –finding capabilities; and changing attitudes, beliefs, values, and/or feelings (Bloom, 1956; Kemp, Morrison, and Ross, 1996; Smith and Ragana, 1999). (Pg.169). For the learning outcomes of my three lesson units, I will be focusing on (Direct examples from the text) “Acquisition of knowledge. i.e., Participants will be able to describe what a ropes course is and identify the basic principles of team building.” (Pg.169) and “Enhancement of cognitive skills. i.e., Participants will analyze each of the team-building exercises and translate what they have learned into one or two proposed changes in their professional practice and/or personal lives.” (Pg.169)

I’ve decided to focus strongly on these two learning outcomes, because they contribute highly to my Realism directed philosophy, by focusing on the accumulation of knowledge and on logical and abstract thinking. In staying true to my philosophy, it is imperative that the instructor and the planned student’s reading rarely deviate from the ordered plan of sound design history. It is important at this stage that students are able to process the material and are able to write on and internalize the information to construct a fundamental base of sound design theory. Students will be able to acquire knowledge and enhance their cognitive skills by transferring the knowledge into cognitive skills where they will eventually analyze, write-on and contribute to the historical transfer of the who? what? and why? that have shaped modern sound design.

The learning outcome techniques will follow the format Caffarella’s “Exhibit 9.6 – Examples of techniques by Learning Outcomes.” (Pg.176) the acquiring knowledge techniques that will be used include Lecture, Textbook, Web Based searching, and Hypermedia. All of these techniques are true to Realism in the fact that it is “authority figure” content given to the student to absorb and process. The variations in format apply a good example of modern physical and virtual learning that allow the learner to acquire the necessary knowledge, but not be forced with one particular mode of delivery.

A key question to be directed at the students at the beginning of the unit will be to locate the definition of “Sound Designer”. They will need to be prepared to acquire the knowledge of what it means to talk about sound design as a physical career for an individual, and also, as a concept that is newly implored into the design world, that is so commonly dominated by the visual medium.

The first acquiring knowledge link provided will be: http://www.filmsound.org/terminology/designer.htm and the Preface and Introduction text from David Sonnenchien’ Sound Design. (Pg.xvii – xxiii)

From the web link reference: “Sound designer” is an artist who is brought on staff during the planning stages of a film, along with the set and costume designers, and who does his own mixing. The sound designer works with the director to shape an overall, consistent soundtrack that exploits the expressive possibilities of the sound medium.” http://www.filmsound.org/terminology/designer.htm
From the introduction of these terms it will be important that the instructors present their professional view on the Sonnenchien text and then provide lectures from their personal expertise as a sound designer in film. Once students have finished the lessons they will spend time memorizing and going over their lecture notes and researching further on the assigned readings.

The “Enhancing Cognitive Skills” aspect of the unit will consist of a “Case Study”,“Observation” exercises in class and an assignment outside of class. “The Case Study – analysis solves an event, incident, or situation presented orally, in written form, or through computer based means.” (Caffarella, Pg.177) Students are to write out and define a typical sound design situation given to them by the instructor. They will be asked, based on the definitions they have read, if the situation requires a sound designer to enhance the narrative, and based on what they have written, what design techniques might a sound designer employ in the situation. At this point the exercise will be a general paragraph and suggest only the most basic of design elements. This will correspond with the behavioral assessment evaluation and will stay true with the direction of the Realism philosophy. The students are engaged in low involvement and are only being assessed on their written comprehension from the lecture, textbook, web based searching and hypermedia materials. It will be enough for the instructor to witness: “Exercising the mind; logical and abstract thinking are highest form” (Ornstein, Hunkins, Pg.37) in highest order from the students.

I have added assessment techniques most suitable to Realism centered unit plans from Caffarella, “Exhibit 9.9” (Pg.189) which states that the best assessment techniques for Acquiring Knowledge:

I will place each sample instructional plan in the chart I have been using in my MEd studies according to Caffarella “Exhibit 9.12 Sample Instructional Plan” (Pg.194):

Title: Introduction to Sound Design
Date and Time: Monday 1:45pm to 2:45pm
Learning objectives: The participants will be able to understand and describe what a sound designer is and what they are capable of doing in the context of film studies.
Content Heading: Introduction to Sound Design
Key Points to Emphasize: The definition of Sound Design from multiple sources and what a sound designer can offer in the development of a film.
Instructional Techniques: Lectures, and time for students to research web-related material on lab computers.

Lesson Plan 2:

In keeping with the learning objectives of knowledge, I will be presenting a similar format for introducing some of the key personnel that have shaped modern sound design in Film: Michael Chion, Walter Murch, Randy Thom, Ben Burtt and David Sonnenschien. Students will be introduced to the work of these individuals in class by lecture from the instructor and by resources including: Textbooks, Web Based searching and Hypermedia. Resources will come from Sound Design by David Sonnenschien and web resource http://www.filmsound.org/.

I put a stronger emphasis on the “enhancing cognitive skills” side of this lesson plan in assessment and evaluation by including “Concept Maps – Learners make diagrams and drawings that represent the mental connections between and among major concepts and ideas.”(Caffarella, Pg.189) I like the idea of the concept map because it is strongly relevant to a high order of thinking and exhibiting abstract thinking. This is done by evoking a non-linear map that shows connections between the sound designers in terms of historical connections and how the theories and technological advancements have evolved over time.

Title: Introduction to Modern Sound Designers in Film
Date and Time: Wednesday 1:45pm to 2:45pm
Learning objectives: The participants will be able to understand and describe the key sound designers that make up modern sound deign in film: Michael Chion, Walter Murch, Ben Burtt and Randy Thom.
Content Heading: Introduction to Modern Sound Designers in Film
Key Points to Emphasize: Who the modern film designers are and how they have shaped the definition of the words sound designer. It is important that students will be able to construct a concept map that shows a timeline of how each designer would have influenced each other and what technological breakthroughs each might have applied to sound design in film. This will come from their lectures and research that happens independently through online work, texts and Hypermedia.
Instructional Techniques: Lecture and time for students to research web-related material on lab computers.

Lesson 3

The objective in lesson plan three will be the first time that students are introduced to a scientific/artistic concept that is static, but ever changing in possibilities.

Unlike the static unchangeable historical aspects of what a sound designer does, and the modern day designs that have shaped sound in film, the introduction of the Audio hierarchy is absolute in its definition, but ever changing in its combination possibilities. The introduction of the Auditory Hierarchy will come from Sound Design with the following preliminary definition: “The distinction between levels and what is most appropriate at any given moment for any given sound (dialogue, effects, ambience, or music) is often handled in the mix, pulling up or dropping down (or out) the tracks as they play with the visuals.” (Pg.196)

Title: Introduction to The Audio Hierarchy
Date and Time: Friday 1:45pm to 2:45pm
Learning objectives: The participants will be able to understand and describe what three components of sound make up the audio hierarchy and what it means to mix the sounds to help construct meaning and aid narrative with the visuals in constructing a film.
Content Heading: Introduction to The Audio Hierarchy
Key Points to Emphasize: The definition of the Audio Hierarchy consisting of the mix between dialogue, sound effects and ambience, or music.
Instructional Techniques: Lecture and time for students to research web-related material on lab computers.

When first reading about the philosophical theory of Realism in Ornstein and Hunkin’s Curriculum and the seemingly stringent concepts based around the Major Philosophies”, I was sure that I would be selecting a more modern philosophy surrounding learning and curriculum. Once I read through the text Curriculum and did some independent research, I realized that all along in my film studies and sound design work I have been studying under a Realism driven curriculum and learning driven by the writing of experts in their field. I found that in order to make sense of the work of one sound designer in film, I had to first study and gain knowledge surrounding where their ideas on sound had come from. I’m hoping that my own work has been able to lock into true Realism driven lesson plans and philosophy.

References
Ornstein, Allan (2009). Curriculum. (35,37,224,228,229).
Caffarella, Rosemary (2002) Program Planning For Adult Learners. (169,176,177,189,194).
Sonnenschein, David (2001) Sound Design: The Expressive Power of Music, Voice, and Sound Effects in Cinema. (xvii-xxiii,196).

– John